مدیران بعنوان اصلی ترین سرمایه های سازمان بخش عمده ای از زمان خود را در محیط کاری سپری می نمایند. ویژگیهای کیفیت زندگی کاری نقش موثری بر عملکرد مدیران دارد و می تواند آنها را ترغیب نمایند تا از حداکثر توانمندی هایشان استفاده نمایند. این پژوهش با هدف ارائه الگوی سلسله مراتبی کیفیت زندگی کاری مدیران بخش دولتی شهر تهران با استفاده از روش آمیخته(کیفی-کمی) به انجام رسید. در بخش کیفی 18 مولفه الگو موردنظر با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای مصاحبه با 18 خبره استخراج و در بخش کمی نیز تعیین ارتباط بین مولفه ها با اتکا به روش مدلسازی ساختاری تفسیری (ISM) انجام شد. تحلیل داده های کیفی و کمی پژوهش دستیابی به الگویی 9 سطحی بود که تاثیرگذارترین مولفه این الگو در سطح نهم، عدم اطمینان است و مولفه های تصمیم هراسی و ترس از اشتباه، مشارکت کاذب در تصمیم گیری، تنهایی در محیط کار و استرس و فشارهای عصبی تاثیرپذیرترین شاخص های این الگو می باشد. نتایج این پژوهش از طریق ارائه جوانب مثبت و منفی انتصاب به پست مدیریتی، به کارکنان و مدیران کمک می کند تا تصویر واقع بینانه تری نسبت به جایگاه مدیریتی داشته باشند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Managerial position as a double-edged sword: Hierarchical model of quality of work life of public sector managers
As the most important capital of the organization, managers spend most of their time in the workplace. The characteristics of the quality of work life have an effective role in managers' performance and can encourage them to use their maximum abilities. This research aimed to design and explain a hierarchical model of public sector managers' quality of work life in Tehran using a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative). In the qualitative section, 18 model components were obtained from interviews with 18 experts and analyzed using the content analysis method. The quantitative section determined the relationship between the components using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) method. Analyzing the qualitative and quantitative data of the research, a 9-level model was obtained. The most affecting component of this model at the ninth level is uncertainty. At the same time, decision phobia and fear of mistakes, false participation in decision-making, loneliness in the workplace, stress, and nervous pressure are the components that were affected more than other components of this model. The results of this research help employees and managers to have a more realistic image of managerial positions by presenting the pros and cons of it.
Early qualitative research suggests that becoming a manager can be a double-edged sword. It means this important career change is a narrative of gains and losses: On the one hand, new managers often boast of their new influence and authority while lamenting that they are doing too much in too little time. Therefore, considering the important position of managers in the public sector and their multiple roles, the analysis of managers' quality of life is of great importance as an important issue. In addition, knowing the components of managers' quality of work life helps employees make a more informed decision about career advancement and better guide their career path. In addition to being exposed to environmental, socio-economic, cultural, and family stressors, the public sector also faces occupational stress. Therefore, by identifying the hierarchical model of managers' quality of work life, it is possible to increase the motivation of employees for promotion by benefiting from the factors that strengthen the quality of managers' work life and providing a solution to improve the factors that lead to endangering the quality of managers' work life. Moreover, portraying a more realistic vision of the managerial position prepared them for career advancement. For this purpose, this research seeks to find the hierarchical model of public sector managers' quality of work life in Tehran.
Materials and methods
This research was conducted using a mixed research method (qualitative-quantitative) and seeks to provide a hierarchical model of the quality of working life of public sector managers in Tehran. This research is a descriptive survey in terms of nature and method and practical in terms of purpose. In the qualitative part, the thematic analysis method has been used through semi-structured interviews to understand, recognize, and extract the variables. The statistical population of this research in the qualitative part includes a collection of academic experts and specialists familiar with the quality of work life of managers and with the scientific rank of associate professor and above, managers of seven government organizations in Tehran with a master's degree and above and management experience of at least ten years, as well as consultants Managers of government organizations with at least ten years of consulting experience and a doctorate in management. The criterion of sample adequacy is theoretical saturation. A total of 18 people were interviewed using the purposeful selective sampling method, and theoretical saturation was achieved. The following variables were modeled using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) method. In the quantitative part of the research, 14 experts from the qualitative part who were familiar with how to respond to the self-interaction matrix were selected purposefully.
Results and Discussion
By Analyzing data in the research, a nine-level model was obtained; the most affecting component of this model at the ninth level is uncertainty, while decision phobia and fear of mistakes, false participation in decision-making, loneliness in the workplace, stress, and nervous pressure are the components which were affected more than other components of this model.
As the research model shows, uncertainty can affect salaries and rewards, legal responsibility, and managers' sense of power. Therefore, it is suggested that managers first define and understand uncertainties. Then, try to have an efficient and effective pre-determined scenario for each of these uncertainties in the government organizations of Tehran. Managers of government organizations in Tehran should know that to maintain a balance between their lives and work; they should pay attention to their personal life issues, take these issues seriously, and always try not to diminish their role in the family. Managers are suggested to respect old friends and colleagues more than before and to lay the foundation of friendship in performing organizational tasks. This will make the manager's colleagues and friends consider work fun and commitment. As public sector managers get promoted, they somehow lose their informal connections and friends and end up alone in the workplace. Weakening of informal relationships, formal behaviors, feelings of power, etc., finally leaves managers alone in the workplace, which reduces the quality of their work life and makes managers suffer from this problem. In order to deal with loneliness, Tehran's public sector managers should try to reduce their distance from employees as much as possible and apply reasonable formality. Managers should adopt a collaborative approach to organizational decision-making. Maximizing participation and valuing employee input can reduce false participation. Using an efficient suggestion system can also help the manager in this direction. The fact is that stress and nervous pressure challenge the working life of managers in the public sector. It seems that maintaining calmness in stressful working conditions, accurate and regular prioritization of tasks, using organizational justice in the real sense, organizational transparency, and establishing a balance between personal and professional life can effectively reduce stress and nervous pressure. The results of this research help employees and managers to have a more realistic image of managerial positions by presenting the pros and cons of it.