صنایع کوچک و متوسط و زودبازده در مسیر تقویت تولید و اشتغال بهویژه برای حفظ و تقویت بنیه اقتصادی کشور در شرایط سخت اقتصادی؛ نقش بسیار مهمی را ایفا میکنند. مدیریت منابعانسانی سبز (GHRM) یک موضوع مطرح برای صنایع کوچک و متوسط در زمینه اقتصادهای درحال توسعه است. در این زمینه، پژوهش بر روی پیشینههایی تمرکز دارد که از اجرای شیوههای GHRM درصنایع کوچک و متوسط حمایت میکند. در این مطالعه، مرور ادبیات گستردهای برای ایجاد پیشینه برای اجرای شیوههای GHRM سازماندهی شد. تکنیک مدلسازی ساختاری تفسیری(ISM) تعاملات بین مولفههای شناساییشده را بررسی میکند. بهعلاوه، آنالیز ماتریس ضربدری (MICMAC) برای تعیین قدرت وابستگی محرکه هریک از مولفهها انجام شد. با بررسی پژوهشهای پیشین، متون مرتبط و نظر خبرگان در نهایت ۱۹ مولفه مؤثر در ارتباط با مدیریت منابع انسانی سبز در ارتباط با صنایع کوچک و متوسط استان تهران شناسایی شد. جامعه آماری این مقاله خبرگان و صنعتگران مسلط به موضوع تحقیق بود که در نهایت جهت شناسایی و تحلیل عوامل، 15نفر از کارشناسان و خبرگان صنعتی همکاری نمودند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Green HR Model Design in Small and Medium Industries Using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM)
Small, medium and high-yield industries in the direction of strengthening production and employment, especially to maintain and strengthen the country's economic strength in difficult economic conditions; they play a very important role. Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) is a topic for small and medium industries in developing economies. In this regard, the research focuses on the backgrounds that support the implementation of GHRM practices in small and medium industries. In this study, an extensive literature review was organized to provide background for the implementation of GHRM practices. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) examines the interactions between identified components. In addition, cross-matrix analysis (MICMAC) was performed to determine the driving power of each component. By reviewing previous research, related texts and experts' opinions, 19 effective components related to green human resource management in relation to small and medium industries in Tehran province were identified. The statistical population of this article was the experts and craftsmen who dominated the research topic, and finally 15 experts and industrial experts collaborated to identify and analyze the factors. The results of structural and interpretive modeling show that the trade union is considered as one of the main stakeholders in environmental management and the main foundation of the model and has high leadership power and low intensity of dependence that must be used for green human resource management. Be emphasized first. The other 18 components, which are in the category of connected components, also have high conductivity and dependence and can affect other components. This model helps managers understand the impact of each component on each other before implementing GHRM practices in small and medium-sized industries.
In order to maintain environmental sustainability, the recent trend of companies has been to focus on greening their businesses; for this reason, the philosophy of green human resources has been added to the mission statement of organizations as another critical responsibility of human resource management. Although green human resources are still in their infancy, the increasing awareness of organizations about the importance of green issues has forced them to adopt environmentally friendly human resource practices with a particular focus on waste management, recycling, carbon footprint reduction, and the use and production of green products. It is clear that most employees feel more responsible towards the environment and show more commitment and job satisfaction towards an organization that is always ready to be "green". The effects of HRM practices are multifaceted and require continuous monitoring to discern their potential impact on HRM issues. For this reason, the current research was conducted to identify and evaluate the effective factors of green human resource management in small and medium industries of Tehran province by applying the combined ISM approach. Environmental issues of small and medium industries are considered essential factors for the development of these industries. On the other hand, their activities can lead to environmental problems such as; Gas, liquid, and solid waste pollution.
Materials and Methods
The present study is applied in terms of its purpose and descriptive survey in terms of its nature and method. Regarding collecting research data, the factors and components affecting green human resources management were first identified and extracted by an in-depth literature review and study. The experts of small and medium industries of Tehran form the statistical population of this part of the research. The selection criteria of experts are theoretical mastery, practical experience, willingness and ability to participate in research and access, and 15 of these people with at least a master's degree having at least ten years of management experience in the field of human resources, having enough time to be justified about The nature of research and questionnaire completion techniques; They were chosen by judgment. Experts' opinions regarding verifying factors and components affecting green human resources management have been obtained through the Delphi method. The second data analysis stage is based on the ISM technique to examine and analyze the relationships between the green human resource management indicators confirmed in the previous stage.
Discussion and Results
According to the ISM model, the green human resources model consists of 6 levels. The first level and the 6th level are the most effective levels. As one of the main beneficiaries of environmental management, the index of the trade union took the first level position, and the index of strengthening the green empowerment of people took the sixth level position (both of these components are related to the dimension of green participation). According to the results of MICMAC analysis, the index of recognizing the joint role in environmental management between employees, management, and labor unions and the index of the labor union as one of the primary beneficiaries of environmental management are independent variables, with low dependence and high direction. The index of strengthening people's green empowerment is also a dependent variable with strong dependence and weak guidance. This variable has a strong influence and little influence on the system. The main characteristics of these variables are the rest of the indicators of interface type, high dependence, and high guiding power.
The results indicated that the trade union and strengthening the green ability of employees have a prominent role in greening human resource management; the development of valuable environmental programs depends on the amount of response that employees receive about a specific environmental issue. People's participation in organizational green projects leads to better environmental management, efficient use of resources, and reduced waste in the organization. Therefore, it is suggested that Tehran's small and medium industries participate as much as possible in the trade unions in strategic decisions related to environmental activities and benefit from their valuable suggestions. Because trade unions, relying on the role of leadership in directing the behavior of employees, can encourage them to internalize organizational values and use these values to guide their behavior in the workplace. Discovering talents and skills in the employees of a company is an important beginning to strengthening their abilities. Moreover, one of the ways to implement this issue is to involve employees in decisions related to Design, production, packaging, distribution, and support appropriate to the environment.