امروزه تعاملات مهم انسانی به واسطه فناوری اطلاعات صورت میگیرد و این امر یک بازسازی در مفهوم رهبری را میطلبد. هدف این پژوهش، ارائه الگوی رهبری مجازی است. این پژوهش از نظر هدف، بنیادی و از لحاظ گردآوری داده، توصیفی است.جهت انجام این پژوهش از روش نظریه داده بنیاد چندگانه به صورت ترکیبی از روش نظریه داده بنیاد و فراترکیب استفاده شده است.در ابتدا با استفاده از روش فراترکیب 32 پژوهش انتخاب و کدهای مربوطه شناسایی شد در ادامه با استفاده از مصاحبه با 15 نفر از خبرگان دانشگاهی که به روش نمونهگیری نظری انتخاب شدند و تحلیل دادهها در قالب نظریه داده بنیاد، مفاهیم و مقولههای نهایی استخراج گردید. بر این اساس هوش احساسی، هوش فرهنگی، یادگیری مستمر، تابآوری، کاریزمای الکترونیک، همدلی دیجیتال و اصالت به عنوان صفات شخصی؛ سازگاری، گشودگی در برابر تجربه، ریسکپذیری، اجتماعی الکترونیک و انتقادپذیری به عنوان صفات شخصیتی؛ مهارت نوشتن دیجیتال، سواد دیجیتال، مخاطبشناسی، اقناع و ترغیب، برندسازی شخصی و شبکهسازی اجتماعی به عنوان مهارتهای ارتباطی؛ و اعتمادسازی الکترونیک، مدیریت تغییر الکترونیک، نفوذ و تأثیرگذاری از راه دور، مهارت شناختی و توانمندسازی و مهارت بین فردی به عنوان مهارتهای رفتاری شناسایی شدند. یافتههای این پژوهش میتواند به رهبری افراد در فضای مجازی کمک نماید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Pattern of Virtual Leadership
In today’s society, important human interactions takes place through information technology, and this requires a reconstruction of leadership concept. The purpose of this study is to provide a model for virtual leadership. This study is fundamental in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of data collection. In order to conduct this research, the multi-grounded theory method has been used, which is a combination of grounded theory and meta-synthesis. Based on set criteria, 32 researches were selected and the relevant codes were identified. In addition, 15 academic scholars in the field of leadership and communication were interviewed. These scholars were selected by theoretical sampling method and data analyzed in the form of grounded theory. As a result, the following concepts and categories were extracted: emotional intelligence, cultural intelligence, continuous learning, resilience, electronic charisma, empathy and originality (personal traits); Adaptability, openness to experience, risk-taking, social and criticism (personality traits); Digital writing skills, digital literacy, audience recognition, persuasion, personal branding and social networking (communication skills); and Electronic trust building, change management, remote penetration, cognitive ,empowerment and interpersonal skills were identified as behavioral skills. The findings of this study can help guide people in cyberspace who interact with their followers through electronic media.
The new virtual environment and communications due to technologies bring new meaning to leadership. Revising some aspects of leadership in a virtual environment is necessary. In this context, virtual leadership is a new kind where leaders mediate human interaction through information and communication technology (Freeman,2017:1-2). Similar to leadership in face-to-face contexts, virtual leadership can be transmitted via traits, behaviors, cognitions, and affect. Each of these mechanisms provides unique ways for leadership influence to be transmitted and received by others and offers implications for virtual leadership theory. Keep in mind that virtual leadership is part of the broader domain of science and practice of leadership, which must be examined coherently (Torre & sarti,2020:5).
It should be noted that research on virtual leadership is at an early stage. Regarding Reichers and Scheider’s three-stage concept development model, which includes introduction/elaboration, evaluation/augmentation, and consolidation/accommodation, the study of virtual leadership is at the introduction/elaboration stage. In addition, the concept of virtual leadership often examines the dominant concepts in leadership by focusing on the existing theories of leadership. Although leadership goals have not changed, virtual leaders pursue the achievement of goals through people and in a virtual environment, which in turn has changed the traditional leader-follower relationship. Considering the above explanations and existing research gaps, we intend to investigate the characteristics and skills of virtual leaders.
Materials and Methods
Almost half of the research conducted in this field is based on the content analysis of articles, and the existing literature in the field of virtual leadership that specifically introduces virtual leadership through empirical studies is relatively rare. In this article, by using the method of multi-grounded theory and using the opinions of experts, the characteristics and skills of virtual leadership have been investigated. For this purpose, articles, books, reliable foreign and domestic websites were reviewed. Finally, 175 researches and texts related to the topic were identified. In the second step, documents were qualitatively reviewed. After considering the filters, 32 studies were finally selected to enter the meta synthesis stage. The retrieved articles were evaluated in terms of content quality. The third step in meta synthesis is the analysis and integration of qualitative findings. In this step, the extracted codes have been converted into concepts, and concepts into categories. The basis of the classification of these codes is built on the similarity of different codes with each other. In the next step, extracted concepts and categories are included in the interview. At this stage, in order to collect data, interviews were conducted with academic experts and researchers in the field of leadership and communication, especially in the virtual field, who were selected by theoretical sampling method. After completing the first interview, the analysis process began and finally the virtual leadership pattern was designed.
Discussion and Results
A detailed review of the selected studies led to the extraction of 47 codes and the review of the interviewees' opinions led to the identification of 67 codes. After combining the codes obtained from the meta synthesis stage and the grounded theory, different categories were linked to each other and to the central variable. Finally, based on the analysis, 4 main categories, 24 concepts and 73 signs were obtained. The following concepts and categories were extracted in the result:
Emotional intelligence, cultural intelligence, continuous learning, resilience, electronic charisma, digital empathy and originality as categories related to personal traits; Adaptability, openness to experience, risk-taking, social and criticism as categories related to personality traits; Digital writing skills, digital literacy, audience recognition, persuasion, personal branding and social networking as categories related to communication skills; and Electronic trust building, electronic change management, remote penetration, cognitive,empowerment and interpersonal skills were identified as categories related to behavioral skills
The pervasive features of information and communication technology have penetrated more strongly in the relationship between leaders and followers in the recent decades.one of the questions raised is that when relationships are formed based on network interactions, how does leadership change? In this regard, leaders, researchers and management theorists have concentrated on the “How” and the “What” but have neglected the “Who”. On the other hand, the studies have focused on some general competencies of virtual leaders and so far a comprehensive classification of the traits and skills required for virtual leadership has not been provided. The main goal of this research is to identify the characteristics and skills of virtual leadership, and for this purpose, Multi-Grounded Theory have been used. The focus of this theory is related to its various sources of knowledge and information. This type of information is both for the creation of the theory and a guarantee for its validity.
The research results show that although there is still a belief in the importance of traditional leadership qualities, there is a recognition that amplification of various elements is needed as technology is integrated into the context.