استفاده از نمایش هندسی داده ها در تحلیل اطلاعات

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

هیئت علمی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

نگرش آمار شناسان به تحلیل داده ها، طی سی سال گذشته، دستخوش یک انقلاب شده است. این انقلاب را به درستی مرهون نشر اثر تاریخی جان توکی تحت عنوان تحلیل اکتشافی داده ها می دانند. هسته اولیه این انقلاب در مجموعه مقالات نوشته شده به وسیله توکی، همفکران و دانشجویان او شکل گرفت. این انقلاب با مقاله سال 1962 توکی تحت عنوان آینده تحلیل داده ها به جهت گیری روشنی دست یافت. محتوای این مقاله، به نیاز مشخص بسیاری از تحلیل گران داده ها که ابزار سنتی آمار ریاضی را برای تحلیل داده های خود کافی نمی دیدند پاسخ داد. پاسخ او برای آگاهی یافتن از جهات مختلف یک مسئله واقعی، بهره گیری از روشهای تحلیل اکتشافی داده ها بود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Performance of the free zones In Iran: Analysis

نویسنده [English]

  • hamid zarghaam borujani

چکیده [English]

The  history of statistics has become interesting in recent decades to a remarkably diverse group of scholars, and  for an  equally wide-ranging unwieldy set of reasons,  Among  them: (1) The incorporation of chance, and of statistical reasoning, into  the sciences has involved some fundamental intellectual  changes, perhaps even  a kind of scientific revolution.  (2) As a social technology, statistics is a form of information that  is  also an important medium  of power.  (3) Statistics joins  the  human  sciences to the  physical and natural  ones. More  than  that,  it has  come  to involve  in  a particularly  striking way an ideal and an ethic  of objectivity,  meaning,  among other things, control of the  subjective. (4) Statistics has  become an indispensable language of public discussion, with immense credibility even  if it is also sometimes condemned. The  history of statistical graphics  and the rise of statistical thinking are  intertwined with each  other throughout the 19th century. Over this time, social, behavioral, medical, and economic statistics began to be gathered in large and  periodic series, and  the  usefulness of these bodies of data for planning, for governmental response, and as a subject worth of study in  tis own right, began to be recognized, Graphical  methods were in widespread  use in  the second  half of 19th century. The brith of statistical thinking was also accompanied by a rise in visual thinking: a desire to make  these numbers -  their trends, tendencies, and distributions - more easily communicated or accessible to visual inspection. This paper  brings together  topics representing notable landmarks in historical developments  in  statistical  graphics. William playfair  invented  the  pie chart  in 1801.  In  the  following  two centuries, this serviceable and Likeable little graph  has found many uses and users. Ever since John  Tukey's graphical representation has drawn interest as a form of visulaization  and  a means  of communication,  and  these roles  are important  enough,  But its  significance  extends still  further.


دوره 7، شماره 25.26
تابستان 1379
صفحه 141-162
  • تاریخ دریافت: 14 مهر 1395
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 14 مهر 1395