Document Type : Research Paper


1 PPhD Student of Systems Management, , Shahid Beheshti University , Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Management, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Business model innovation is defined as new, non-partial and designed changes in key elements or the architecture of the relationships between these elements in a company's business model. BMI is a large new form of organizational innovation that requires theorizing, implementation and testing. In recent years a lot of research has been done on the subject of business model innovation and has faced an exponential growth in the interest of researchers and executives. This highlights the need for more conceptual and empirical research on BMI and some refinements in this area in order to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon. In this article, while reviewing previous research related to this field in the period 1980 to 2020 in Scopus database, using the Meta-Synthesis qualitative method, the business model innovation drivers are identified and categorized. Finally, 9 drivers (Competitive pressure, technology pressure, external environmental changes, external stakeholders, market development opportunities, management thinking model, internal challenges, internal capabilities and internal strategy stimulation) were identified by explaining their impact on business model innovation and a conceptual model is presented.


Alegre, I., & Berbegal-Mirabent, J. (2016). Social innovation success factors: hospitality and tourism social enterprises. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(6), 1155–1176.
Arifiani, L., & Arifiani, L. (2019). The Effect of Disruption Technology , Opportunities and Challenges of Telecommunication Industry 4.0 in Indonesia. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 7(6S5), 808–819.
Aspara, J., Lamberg, J.-A., Laukia, A., & Tikkanen, H. (2013). Corporate Business Model Transformation and Inter-Organizational Cognition: The Case of Nokia. Long Range Planning, 46(6), 459–474.
Baden-Fuller, C., & Morgan, M. S. (2010). Business Models as Models. Long Range Planning, 43(2–3), 156–171.
Bashir, M., & Verma, R. (2019). Internal factors & consequences of business model innovation. Management Decision, 57(1), 262–290.
Berti, C., & Casprini, E. (2018). When regulatory changes become a driver for business model innovation. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 26(1), 63–74.
Bouwman, H., Nikou, S., Molina-Castillo, F. J., & de Reuver, M. (2018). The impact of digitalization on business models. Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, 20(2), 105–124.
Bucherer, E., Eisert, U., & Gassmann, O. (2012). Towards Systematic Business Model Innovation: Lessons from Product Innovation Management. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(2), 183–198.
Casadesus-Masanell, R., & Ricart, J. E. (2011). How to Design a Winning Business Model. Harvard Business Review, 89(February), 3–9.
Chesbrough, H. W., & Rosenbloom, R. S. (2002). The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: Evidence from Xerox Corporation’s technology spin-off companies. Industrial and Corporate Change, 11(3), 529–555.
Comberg, C., & Velamuri, V. K. (2017). The introduction of a competing business model: The case of eBay. International Journal of Technology Management, 73(1–3), 39–64.
Damanpour, F. (1996). Organizational Complexity and Innovation: Developing and Testing Multiple Contingency Models. Management Science, 42(5), 693–716.
Doz, Y. L., & Kosonen, M. (2010). Embedding Strategic Agility. Long Range Planning, 43(2–3), 370–382.
Fjeldstad, Ø. D., & Snow, C. C. (2017). Business models and organization design. Long Range Planning, 51(1), 32–39.
Foss, N. J., & Saebi, T. (2017a). Business models and business model innovation: Between wicked and paradigmatic problems. Long Range Planning, 51(1), 9–21.
Foss, N. J., & Saebi, T. (2017b). Fifteen Years of Research on Business Model Innovation. Journal of Management, 43(1), 200–227.
Fry, L. W., & Smith, D. A. (1987). Congruence, Contingency, and Theory Building. Academy of Management Review, 12(1), 117–132.
Gupta, G., & Bose, I. (2019). Strategic learning for digital market pioneering: Examining the transformation of Wishberry’s crowdfunding model. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 146(April), 865–876.
Habtay, S. R. (2012). A Firm-Level Analysis on the Relative Difference between Technology-Driven and Market-Driven Disruptive Business Model Innovations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(3), 290–303.
Heikkilä, M., Bouwman, H., & Heikkilä, J. (2018). From strategic goals to business model innovation paths: an exploratory study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 25(1), 107–128.
Hoon, C. (2013). Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Case Studies. Organizational Research Methods, 16(4), 522–556.
Johnson, Mark, W., Clayton M., C., & Henning, K. (2008). Reinventing Your Business Model. Harvard Business Review, 86(12), 50–59.
Lambert, S. C., & Davidson, R. A. (2013). Applications of the business model in studies of enterprise success, innovation and classification: An analysis of empirical research from 1996 to 2010. European Management Journal, 31(6), 668–681.
Latilla, V. M., Frattini, F., Franzo, S., & Chiesa, V. (2020). Organisational change and business model innovation: an exploratory study of an energy utility. International Journal of Innovation Management, 24(04), 2050036.
Laudien, S. M., & Daxböck, B. (2017). Business model innovation processes of average market players: a qualitative-empirical analysis. R&D Management, 47(3), 420–430.
Laukkanen, M., & Patala, S. (2014). Analysing barriers to sustainable business model innovations: innovation systems approach. International Journal of Innovation Management, 18(06), 1440010.
Liao, S., Liu, Z., Fu, L., & Ye, P. (2018). Investigate the role of distributed leadership and strategic flexibility in fostering business model innovation. Chinese Management Studies, CMS-02-2018-0420.
Liu, P., & Bell, R. (2019). Exploration of the initiation and process of business model innovation of successful Chinese ICT enterprises. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 11(4), 515–536.
Magretta, J. (2002). Why Business Models Matter. Harvard Business Review, 80(5), 86–92.
Marolt, M., Lenart, G., Maletič, D., Borštnar, M. K., & Pucihar, A. (2016). Business model innovation: Insights from a multiple case study of Slovenian SMEs. Organizacija, 49(3), 161–171.
Müller, J. M., Buliga, O., & Voigt, K. I. (2018). Fortune favors the prepared: How SMEs approach business model innovations in Industry 4.0. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 132(December 2017), 2–17.
Müller, S., & Hundahl, M. (2018). IT-Driven Business Model Innovation. International Journal of E-Business Research, 14(2), 14–38.
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers. In John Wiley and Sons (1st ed.). John Wiley and Sons.
Pedersen, P. E., Solem, B. A., & Bentsen, K. (2017). Business model innovation in the retail industry: a service system perspective. In Innovating for Trust (pp. 131–144). Edward Elgar Publishing.
Priem, R. L., Wenzel, M., & Koch, J. (2017). Demand-side strategy and business models: Putting value creation for consumers center stage. Long Range Planning, 51(1), 22–31.
Pucihar, A., Marolt, M., Vidmar, D., Borštnar, M. K., & Lenart, G. (2018). Business model innovation in SMEs in Slovenia. In C. G. Oskrdal V., Doucek P. (Ed.), IDIMT 2018: Strategic Modeling in Management, Economy and Society - 26th Interdisciplinary Information Management Talks (pp. 145–152). Trauner Verlag Universitat.
Pynnönen, M., Hallikas, J., & Ritala, P. (2012). Managing customer-driven business model innovation. International Journal of Innovation Management, 16(4), 1–18.
Roaldsen, I. (2014). Dynamic capabilities as drivers of business model innovation - from the perspective of SMEs in mature industries. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 18(4), 349.
Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2006). Handbook for Synthesizing Qualitative Research. Springer Publishing Company.
Schneider, S., & Spieth, P. (2013). Business Model Innovation: Towards an integrated future research agenda. International Journal of Innovation Management, 17(01), 1340001.
Schneider, S., Spieth, P., & Clauss, T. (2013). Business model innovation in the aviation industry. International Journal of Product Development, 18(3/4), 286.
Snihur, Y., & Zott, C. (2020). The Genesis and Metamorphosis of Novelty Imprints: How Business Model Innovation Emerges in Young Ventures. Academy of Management Journal, 63(2), 554–583.
Spieth, P., Schneckenberg, D., & Ricart, J. E. (2014). Business model innovation - state of the art and future challenges for the field. R&D Management, 44(3), 237–247.
Teece, D. J. (2010). Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Long Range Planning, 43(2–3), 172–194.
Tiscini, R., Testarmata, S., Ciaburri, M., & Ferrari, E. (2020). The blockchain as a sustainable business model innovation. Management Decision, 58(8), 1621–1642.
Voelpel, S. C., Leibold, M., & Tekie, E. B. (2004). The wheel of business model reinvention: how to reshape your business model to leapfrog competitors. Journal of Change Management, 4(3), 259–276.
Wahyono, W. (2019). Business model innovation: a review and research agenda. Journal of Indian Business Research, 11(4), 348–369.
Yip, A. W. H., & Bocken, N. M. P. (2018). Sustainable business model archetypes for the banking industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 150–169.
Zhang, W., Daim, T., & Zhang, Q. (2018). Understanding the disruptive business model innovation of E-business microcredit: a comparative case study in China. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 30(7), 765–777.
Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2010). Business model design: An activity system perspective. Long Range Planning, 43(2–3), 216–226.
Zott, C., Amit, R., & Massa, L. (2011). The Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research. Journal of Management, 37(4), 1019–1042.