Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student in Human Resource Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor of Public Administration Department of Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.


Moonlighting is a widespread and increasingly prevalent phenomenon in today's society, forcing human resources managers to develop new strategies for managing their workforce by deeply understanding this pervasive issue and its causes. Thus, the typology of moonlighting and its causes as well as alignment checks were the goals of the current study. In terms of its primary goal, the method utilized to collect qualitative data, and the Meta-synthesis methodology, this study is qualitative. For this purpose, a new configuration of the moonlighting phenomena was provided using the seven step model of Sandlovsky and Barroso. In this study, reliability was evaluated using Holstein's method, while validity was checked using Glynn's checklist. After examining and analyzing the results of the systematic review, four types of moonlighting—compulsory moonlighting, targeted moonlighting, full moonlighting, and hybrid moonlighting—as well as three categories of environmental, occupational, and individual antecedents—were discovered. After placing each type of moonlighting according to the components of the three antecedents, the moonlighting model was established as the cornerstone of organizational studies.


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