Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in Public Management, Human Resources Management, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran


The presence of employees in the workplace, despite the signs and symptoms of the disease, represents the phenomenon of presenteeism, the lack of control over which is related to the obvious and hidden costs, such as depression, burnout, deteriorating health. The present study aims to design a conceptual model for the managing presenteeism in organizations’ human resources with the approach of the grounded theory. This study, which is a kind of quality-research strategy and was by grounded theory approach, has been conducted. The statistical population of the study is employees and managers of private companies in the industrial city of Rasht. In this study, purposeful sampling was used to select the sample, which according to the saturation rule, was obtained in the present study using 25 important interviews and continued for up to 30 interviews to be more reliable. Open, axial, and selective coding methods were used to analyze the collected data. The results of the research include identifying causal factors at two levels, contextual conditions at three levels, intervening conditions, strategies and consequences of the presenteeism, and finally designing a model of managing presenteeism. Awareness of the nature of presenteeism helps to find the problem root for the implementation of strategies and mechanisms to overcome the negative consequences of presenteeism and increase the general index of health and productivity.


دانیالی ده حوض، محمود، علامه، سید محسن و صفری، علی. (1397). طراحی الگوی مدیریت جانشین پروری با رویکرد داده بنیاد. پژوهش نامه مدیریت تحول، (1)10، 140-105.
  doi: 10.22067/pmt.v10i1.61676
رحیمی باغملک، جهانبخش، حقیقی، محمد و میرا، ابوالقاسم. (1398). طراحی و تبیین مدل وفاداری بر مبنای تجربه مشتری در صنعت هتلداری با استفاده از استراتژی تئوری داده بنیاد. فصلنامه مدیریت بازرگانی، (1)11، 125-140.
 doi: 10.22059/jibm.2018.218111.2306
کاردوانی، راحله، تاج مزینانی، علی اکبر، میرخانی، عزت السادات و سجادی، سیدمهدی. (1396). تبیین الگوهای سیاستی و تحولات سیاست گذاری اجتماعی ایران درحوزة «مادری/ اشتغال». پژوهش‌نامه زنان، 8(22)، 37-64.
محمد اسماعیلی، ندا،  قائدی، شهداد، یوسفی­امیری، مظاهر و قلی پور، آرین. (1395). پدیده پرزنتیسم: بررسی پیامدها و راهکارهای مقابله با آن. فصل­نامه چشم­انداز مدیریت دولتی، 1 (7)، 67-93.
موسوی، سید نجم‌الدین، شریعت نژاد، علی و ساعدی، عبداله. (1397). طراحی مدل مدیریت ریسک منابع انسانی در سازمان‌های دولتی با استفاده از نظریه داده‌بنیاد. مطالعات منابع انسانی، 8(2)، 121-142.
Aboagye, E., Björklund, C., Gustafsson, K., Hagberg, J., Aronsson, G., Marklund, S., & Bergström, G. (2019). Exhaustion and Impaired Work Performance in the Workplace: Associations with Presenteeism and Absenteeism. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine.
Arjona-Fuentes, J. M., Ariza-Montes, A., Han, H., & Law, R. (2019). Silent threat of presenteeism in the hospitality industry: examining individual, organisational and physical/mental health factors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 82, 191-198.
Baptista, M. C., Burton, W. N., Nahas, A. K., Wang, Y. P., Viana, M. C., & Andrade, L. H. (2019). Absenteeism and Presenteeism Associated With Common Health Conditions in Brazilian Workers. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 61(4), 303-313.
Charmaz, K., & Belgrave, L. L. (2007). Grounded theory. The Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology.
Chun, B. Y., & Hwang, Y. J. (2018). Gender, Presenteeism, and Turnover Intention and the Mediation Effect of Presenteeism in the Workplace. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 120(6), 4821-4836.
Cooper, C.L. (1998). The changing nature of work. Community, Work and Family, 1(3), 313–317.
Creswell, J. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Sage Publication: UK.
Danyali deh hoz, M., allameh, S., safari, A. (2019). Designing a Model of Succession Management with an Approach of the Grounded Theory. Transformation Management Journal, 10(1), 105-140. doi: 10.22067/pmt.v10i1.61676 [In Persian]
Deng, J., Li, Y., Sun, Y., Lei, R., & Yang, T. (2019). Public service motivation as a mediator of the relationship between job stress and presenteeism: a cross-sectional study from Chinese public hospitals. BMC health services research, 19(1), 625.
Hemp, P. (2004). Presenteeism: at work-but out of it. Harvard business review, 82(10), 49-58.
kardavani, R., taj ahmazyani, A., mirkhani, E., sajadi, S. (2018). The Analysis of policy patterns and Iran's Social Policy naking changes in the field of "maternal / Employment". Women Studies, 8(22), 37-64. [In Persian]
Kivimäki, M., Head, J., Ferrie, J. E., Hemingway, H., Shipley, M. J., Vahtera, J., & Marmot, M. G. (2005). Working while ill as a risk factor for serious coronary events: the Whitehall II study. American journal of public health, 95(1), 98-102.
Koopman, C., Pelletier, K. R., Murray, J. F., Sharda, C. E., Berger, M. L., Turpin, R. S., & Bendel, T. (2002). Stanford presenteeism scale: health status and employee productivity. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine44(1), 14-20.
Lohaus, D., & Habermann, W. (2019). Presenteeism: A review and research directions. Human Resource Management Review, 29(1), 43-58.
MacGregor, J. N., Barton Cunningham, J., & Caverley, N. (2008). Factors in absenteeism and presenteeism: Life events and health events. Management Research News31(8), 607-615.
Mach Piera, M., Ferreira, A. I., Martinez, L. F., Lisowskaia, A., Dahger, G. K., & Pérez-Nebra, A. R. (2018). Working conditions revisited: A moderated-mediation model of job context and presenteeism. PLoS One, 2018, vol. 13, num. 10, p. e0205973-e0205973.
Mohammad Esmaeili, N., Ghaedi, S., Yousefi Amiri, M., Gholipour, A. (2016). Presenteeism Phenomenon: Investigating the Outcomes and the Solutions of Managing it. Journal of Public Administration Perspective, 1(7), 67-93. [In Persian]
Mousavi, Seyed Najmoddin, Shariat Nejad, Ali and Saedi, Abdullah. (2018). Designing a human resource risk management model in government organizations using Grounded theory. Journal of Human Resources management, 8 (2), 121-142. [In Persian]
Okemwa, D. O., Atambo, W. N., & Muturi, W. M. (2019). Influence of leave arrangements on commitment of nurses in public hospitals in Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences and Information Technology, 6(2), 22-32.
Rahimi Baghmalek, J., Haghighi, M., Mira, S. (2019). Developing a Loyalty Model Based on the Customers’ Experience in Hotel Industry Using Grounded Theory Strategy. Journal of Business Management, 11(1), 125-140. doi: 10.22059/jibm.2018.218111.2306 [In Persian]
Rainbow, J. G. (2019). Presenteeism: Nurse perceptions and consequences. Journal of Nursing Management.
Sagvaag, H., Rimstad, S. L., Kinn, L. G., & Aas, R. W. (2019). Six shades of grey: Identifying drinking culture and potentially risky drinking behaviour in the grey zone between work and leisure. The WIRUS culture study. Journal of Public Health Research8(2).
Sanderson, K., & Cocker, F. (2013). Presenteeism: Implications and health risks. Australian family physician, 42(4), 172-175.
Steinke, M., & Badura, B. (2011). Präsentismus: Ein Review zum Stand der Forschung. Baua, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research. Sage publications.
Tang, N., Han, L., Yang, P., Zhao, Y., & Zhang, H. (2019). Are mindfulness and self-efficacy related to presenteeism among primary medical staff: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Sciences5(1), 182-186.
Valentine, D. S., Ferebee, S., & Heitner, K. L. (2019). The Effect of Wellness Programs on Long-Term Contract Employees' Workplace Stress, Absenteeism, and Presenteeism. International Journal of Adult Vocational Education and Technology (IJAVET), 10(4), 30-40.
Vieira, I. D. D. S. (2018). Emotions, burnout and presenteeism in the workplace (Doctoral dissertation).
Wahl-Jorgensen, K. (2019). Challenging presentism in journalism studies: An emotional life history approach to understanding the lived experience of journalists. Journalism, 20(5), 670-678.
Wang, Y., Chen, C. C., Lu, L., Eisenberger, R., & Fosh, P. (2018). Effects of leader–member exchange and workload on presenteeism. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 33(7/8), 511-523.